[Results & Discussion] Oral Presentation(1)

관리자
2016-09-19
조회수 995

A. 결과와 고찰(Results & Discussion)에 관한 Oral Presentation 표현


1. 결과는 과거시제를 주로 사용하여 말한다.

즉, 실험을 해 본 결과 이러한 결과가 나타났다, 이다.

예)

i.)  A compound와 B compound의 성질을 비교해 본 결과이다.

=>In this slide, I have compared the properties of A and B compounds.


2. 자료를 보여주며 그 자료가 이러한 결과를 보여주고 있다, 라고 언급할 때 그 자료가 보여주는 data는 현재에 이루어 지고 있으므로 현재형을 쓴다.

i) 가장 간단한 말로, 이 것은 X에 대한 MTT assay 결과이다, 란 말은

=>This is the results of MTT assy for LLC 이다.


ii.) 이 그림은 PEG/phospholipid vesicle을 가지고 surface grafted PEG/phospholipid monolayer를 만드는 과정을 간단하게 보여주고 있다.

=>This schematic illustration shows the procedure for preparing surface grafted PC monolayers.


iii.) These are AFM images showing the morphology of polymerized PEG/PC monolayers.



3.  slide를 보며 결과에 대한 설명을 할 때, slide의 내용에 따라 graph, drawing, diagram, chart 또는 사진(images, pictures, photographs)인지 구별 하여 말한다.

Slide의 왼편에 있는 figure는 PC monolayer의 surface pressure-area isotherm 을 보여주고 있다.

=>The figure at left shows the surface pressure-area isotherm of PC momolayers.


이 그림에선 PEG/phospholipid vesicle을 가지고 surface grafted PEG/phospholipid monolayer를 만드는 과정을 간단하게 보여주고 있다.

=>This schematic illustration shows the procedure for preparing surface grafted PC monolayers.


이 graph는 각 sample의 UV irradiation 시간에 따른 water angle를 보여주고 있다.

=>This graph shows water contact angles of samples against different UV irradiation time.

 

4.  Other example sentences:

NMR결과, X의 경우 30,000의 분자량이 나온 반면 다른 분자량의 경우는 80,000에서부터 100,000까지 다양한 분자량이 나왔다.

->In the NMR study, MW of X was 30,000 daltons but the MW of the other compound ranged from 80,000 to 100,000 daltons.


이상한 결과가 나와서 참고문헌을 찾아 보았는데 찾아본 결과 NMR의 단말기분석은 5,000이하의 경우 정확한 값을 얻을 수 없다고 한다.

=>The result I got from this experiment was somewhat puzzling, so I did some reference research.  I found that the use of NMR for end group analysis is limited to molecules with the MW of greater than 5,000.


각각 10-7,10-5, 10-4M의 doxorubicin처리된 군들 사이엔 통계학적으로 의미있는 차이는 발견되지 않았다.

=>There was no significant difference among the groups treated with 10-7 M, 10-5M and 10-4M of Doxorubicin, respectively.


4.Discussion

Oral presentation에 있어서 discussion은 질의응답 시간이므로 질문의 요점을 잘 이해하여  그 것에 대한 답을 할 수 있도록 한다.


예)

이 반응에 대한 좀더 자세한 것은 다음에 이야기 하겠다

-> I’d like to discuss more evidence concerning this reaction in the next discussion session.


Now I follow up the procedure my senior researcher has done and I finish this step.

-> I will pick up where my senior has left off in the procedure, and will complete this step in the research.


In a micelle, hydrophobic DOXs gather in core and hydrophilic mPEG segments are outside.

-> In a micelle, hydrophobic DOXs are gathered inside the core and hydrophilic mPEG segments are gathered on the outside.


Therefore, it has been so far considered the cancer targeting system to affect on cancer cells and decrease cytotoxicity on normal cells.

->Therefore, cancer targeting has been opted for treatment of cancer as it can  decrease cytotoxic effects to normals cells while killing cancer cells.


We have still some problems to solve for the synthesis of our conjugate.

-> We still have some problems in the synthesis of our conjugate.



5. oral presentation에서 다음 설명할 부분으로 넘어가고자 할 때, 또는 topic을 바꿀 때 쓸 수 있는 표현들

Now, let me talk about the methods I have employed for this research.

Now, for this research, I have used the following methods.

*실행하고 있는 연구 또는 실험을 언급할 때

experiment, work, research 등을 쓸 수 있다. 단, experiment는 개별적인 한 실험을, research 는 전체적인 연구과제를 의미하고 work란 말은 두 가지 의미로 다 사용될 수 있다.

=>In this work( in this experiment), the following materials were used.

=>The purpose of this work( our research) was to assess the efficacy of topical lidocaine.


*이어지는 실험에서 할 일을 말 할 때,

=>In the following work, I will be looking at the characterizations of acrylated polymer substrates.


예문)

1.Although localized cancers can be treated by surgery and radiotherapy, they are limited by tumor invasion and  stasis.

->they가 뭘 가르키는 분명하지 않다.  Who did what how, why, why, where의 원칙을 적용해 보자. Surgery and radiotherapy를 사용하는 것이(who) tumor invasion and  stasis 때문에(why) 제한적이다(what).

-àAlthough localized cancers can be treated by surgery and radiotherapy, their use is limited because of tumor invasion and  stasis.


2.This is our drug-targeting strategy to cancer.

->이것은 cancer 치료를 목적으로 연구하고 있는(to do what) 우리의 drug-targeting strategy이다.  동사가 빠져 있음을 알 수 있다.

->This is our drug-targeting strategy to treat cancer.


3.Topoisomerases are enzymes to facilitate DNA condensation or decondensation.

->Topoisomerases are enzymes that facilitate DNA condensation or decondensation.


4.When I treated various concentrations of doxorubicin, viability was decreased by a dose-dependent manner.

->treated what?  what about various concentrations of doxorubicin? whose viability?

->When I treated the cells with various concentrations of doxorubicin, viability of the cells was decreased by a dose-dependent manner.


5.Between the not treated group and 10-8M of Dox treated group, there was no significance.

-> not treated group 은 control을 뜻하고 10-8M of Dox treated group은 the group treated with 10-8M of Dox.이라고 하는 것이 좋다.

->There was no significance between the control group and the group treated with 10-8M of Dox.


6.In the MTT assay for LLC, IC50 appeared between 10-6M and 10-5M.

-à우리말로 나타났다(it appeared) 란 의미로 쓰여졌을 테지만, (나타난 것이)관찰되었다 이므로 was observed가 옳다.

-àIn the MTT assay for LLC, IC50 was observed/detected between 10-6M and 10-5M.


7.The sub-topic for my presentation is co-culture of islets with macrophages to observe if PEG grafted islets can be protected from immune cells or not.

--> The sub-topic for my presentation is co-culture of islets with macrophages to observe if PEG grafted islets could be protected from immune cells or not.

8.And especially, some immunosuppressive drug is very toxic to islet beta cells. So transplanted islets are destroyed by them.

-> some drugs 은 복수 취급한다. So transplanted islets are destroyed by them은 fragment로 앞 문장과 연결하여 완전한 문장을 만들도록 한다.

 Immunosuppressive drugs가 주어이다.  

-> Especially, some immunosuppressive drugs are very toxic to islet beta cells and thus destroy the transplanted islets.


9.They made artificial pancreas using living beta cells on synthetic semipermeable hollow fiber. s

->They made artificial pancreas using live beta cells on a synthetic semipermeable hollow fiber.


10.This is the structure of X. Because X can make hydrogen bonding with water, the solubility of PEG in water is very good. So, PEG chain has a high capacity for retaining water molecule.

-> 한 학생의 oral presentation 내용이다. 좀더 refine하게 말하고 싶다면,

->This is the structure of X. Because X can make hydrogen bonding with water, the solubility of X in water would be very good. Therefore, we can say that the X chain has a high capacity for retaining water molecule.


11.As you know, water has the best biocompatible materials.

-> As you know, water is the best biocompatible material.


12.The water contained in the X chain makes Xed islets can not be recognized by immune cells.

->The water contained in the X chain makes Xed islets not be recognized by immune cells.


13.예상한대로의 결과가 나오지 않았다.  결과가 맞는지를 확인해 보기 위해 다음 실험을 실행할 예정이다.

-> The results didn’t come out as I expected. So, I would need to confirm these results by carrying out the following experiments.


연구논문에서와 같이 oral presentation에서도 결과와 고찰을 발표하고 나선 의례적으로 follow-up work 를 논하게 된다.

이 부분은,

For my further study/work, I would like to compare the effects of doxorubicin on the conjugates.  (발표자가 앞으로 할 일에 대해 언급하는 경우)

For the follow-up work, I need to carry out a MTT assay to see the effect of doxorubicin.     (위와 같은 경우)

For further research, work dealing with the effects of doxorubin would be good. (발표자의 연구에 이어지는 일로 다른 연구자들에게 건의하는 의미)

0 2
좋은 자료 잘 봤습니다. 앞으로 좋은 자료 많이 부탁합니다.